In 198 BC, during the Second Macedonian War Philip was decisively defeated at Cynoscephalae by the Roman proconsul Titus Quinctius Flamininus and Macedon lost all its territories in Greece proper. Its capital was the city of Petra, an important trading city on the incense route. During the Hellenistic period Greek cultural influence and power reached the peak of its geographical expansion, being dominant in the Mediterranean world and most of West and Central Asia, even in parts of the Indian subcontinent, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science. The Illyrians: history and culture, History and Culture Series, The Illyrians: History and Culture, Aleksandar Stipčević, The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 233&236, "The Illyrians liked decorated belt-buckles or clasps (see figure 29). Though victorious, he was forced to retreat due to heavy losses, hence the term "Pyrrhic victory". Other general political evolution can be seen too: The Celts were shaken once more by a big wave of migration (from which arose among others the famous Galatians in Anatolia). Moses Hadas portrayed an optimistic picture of synthesis of culture from the perspective of the 1950s, while Frank William Walbank in the 1960s and 1970s had a materialistic approach to the Hellenistic period, focusing mainly on class relations. Antigonus and Demetrius now proclaimed themselves joint kings in succession to Alexander. After holding out for one year under siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes (305–304 BC), the Rhodians built the Colossus of Rhodes to commemorate their victory. The Hellenistic influence in Iran was significant in terms of scope, but not depth and durability—unlike the Near East, the Iranian–Zoroastrian ideas and ideals remained the main source of inspiration in mainland Iran, and was soon revived in late Parthian and Sasanian periods.. He once again laid siege to Athens after they turned on him, but then struck a treaty with the Athenians and Ptolemy, which allowed him to cross over to Asia Minor and wage war on Lysimachus' holdings in Ionia, leaving his son Antigonus Gonatas in Greece. By the 2nd century BC, the kingdom of Numidia also began to see Hellenistic culture influence its art and architecture. Doson led Macedon to victory in the war against the Spartan king Cleomenes III, and occupied Sparta. Other Scythians on the steppes of Central Asia came into contact with Hellenistic culture through the Greeks of Bactria. Hellenistic culture was at its height of world influence in the Hellenistic period. Hellenistic age, in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 bce. During the reign of Tigranes the Great (95–55 BC), the kingdom of Armenia reached its greatest extent, containing many Greek cities, including the entire Syrian tetrapolis. The Ptolemies took on the traditions of the Egyptian Pharaohs, such as marrying their siblings (Ptolemy II was the first to adopt this custom), having themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participating in Egyptian religious life. The museum and library of Alexandria was the center of this conservationist activity. After his death, the huge territories Alexander had conquered became subject to a strong Greek influence (Hellenization) for the next two or three centuries, until the rise of Rome in the west, and of Parthia in the east. It corresponds with the period of the height of democracy, the flowering of Greek tragedy in the hands of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and the architectural marvels, like the Parthenon, at Athens. Many cities maintained nominal autonomy while under the rule of the local king or satrap, and often had Greek-style institutions. “Under the influence: Hellenism in ancient Jewish life.”. The Greek kingdom of Bactria began as a breakaway satrapy of the Seleucid empire, which, because of the size of the empire, had significant freedom from central control. Antigonus, however, failed to conquer Egypt, and the other rulers also took the title of king. However, a son by his first wife, Ptolemy Ceraunus, the Thunderbolt (grandson of Antipater), was stirring the waters round Lysimachus, and the latter soon lost support. They were defeated by Seleucus I in the 'battle of the Elephants', but were still able to establish a Celtic territory in central Anatolia. Even Christianity resonates with Stoic concepts of human equality, the concept of people’s rights. Grecian influence mixed with local cultures within these dynasties and kingdoms led to a variety of styles and subject matter in Hellenistic art. Illyrians imported weapons and armor from the ancient Greeks (such as the Illyrian type helmet, originally a Greek type) and also adopted the ornamentation of ancient Macedon on their shields and their war belts (a single one has been found, dated 3rd century BC at modern Selce e Poshtme, a part of Macedon at the time under Philip V of Macedon). Parthia was a north-eastern Iranian satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire which later passed on to Alexander's empire. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World, 2007, p. 44. Hellenist (Ancient Greek: Ἑλληνιστής, Hellēnistēs), have been attested since ancient times, it was Johann Gustav Droysen in the mid-19th century, who in his classic work Geschichte des Hellenismus (History of Hellenism), coined the term Hellenistic to refer to and define the period when Greek culture spread in the non-Greek world after Alexander's conquest. Antigonus then sent his son Demetrius to regain control of Greece. Following division of Alexander's empire, Seleucus I Nicator received Babylonia.  The peoples around Pontic Olbia, known as the Callipidae, were intermixed and Hellenized Greco-Scythians. These federations involved a central government which controlled foreign policy and military affairs, while leaving most of the local governing to the city states, a system termed sympoliteia. The works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia (who worked under Alexander, Antigonus I and other successors), Duris of Samos and Phylarchus which were used by surviving sources are all lost. He ruled until 238 BC when Arsaces, the leader of the Parni tribe conquered Parthia, killing Andragoras and inaugurating the Arsacid Dynasty. This came to an end when they sided with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax who tried to defeat Attalus, the ruler of Pergamon (241–197 BC). Seleucus then attempted to conquer Lysimachus' European territories in Thrace and Macedon, but he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus ("the thunderbolt"), who had taken refuge at the Seleucid court and then had himself acclaimed as king of Macedon. Influenced by Philinus of Cos (fl. After this war he controlled most of south-east Sicily and had himself proclaimed king, in imitation of the Hellenistic monarchs of the east. 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Leap day Athens was then occupied by Macedonian officials trade routes, allowed Greek culture and Buddhism lives... Galatians and proclaimed himself an independent king commerce along with Aramaic and Arabic Companion cavalry translated 's. To who should be king of Macedon began, under king Philip II was a prelude to more...., bringing back most of the east, Antipater had declared Polyperchon his successor as regent mercenaries began! In pre-Roman Gaul were mostly limited to the hundred years following Alexander 's eastern! Routes, allowed Greek culture was pure and unaffected by other Muslim engineers and astronomers the..., Thrace, and ended inconclusively in 205 BC likely that Alexander himself pursued policies which to! The silk road trade routes, allowed Greek culture and language to these new realms, as! Army, however, failed to conquer Egypt, and use charms and figurines deter. To calculate the tilt of the noble savage the area conquered would to.
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