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Poison - Poison - Plant poisons (phytotoxins): The study of plant poisons is known as phytotoxicology. The present invention, comprised of the crude aqueous extract of Dioscorea hispida, an indigenous plant from the Philippines, has been shown to have sedative, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Dioscorea hispida, also known as the Indian three-leaved yam, is a species of yam in the genus Dioscorea, native to South and Southeast Asia. J. Pharm & Ind. Study showed phenolic acids were present in only small amounts in Kloi tuber, compared to relatively high phenolic content for other yam Dioscorea species. The utility model has its object the process of detoxifying or removing the toxic content of “karot” (Dioscorea hispida. J. • Intoxicant: Jeypore people of India reportedly use the intoxicating effect of D. hispida to forget their sorrows, as they get an effect similar to drinking beer. Clarke, M. L., D. G. Harvey and D. J. Humphreys. daemona (Roxb.) and its uses as a supplementary food supply among the Hanunuo Mangyans of Mindoro, Philippines / Postma, Antoon / Manuscript / Mangyan Heritage Center: Safeguarding the indigenous culture of Mindoro, Philippines utilized ex Klotzsch & Garcke Helmia daemona (Roxb.) An alkaloid was present, more or less uniformly distributed, in both cortical and medullary parts. Results suggest the synthesized hydrogel has potential benefit as disinfectant and other biological applications with further modifications. 2008) and was classified as a wild creeping and climbing plant which can grow up to 20 meters in height. - Rootcrop, kurot or nami, used as supplementary food by the Hanunuo Mangyans of Mindoro. leaf extract using balb/C mice. ): FORMULATION AND A FUTURE NATURAL RODENTICIDE TO CONTROL RAT PEST IN RICE FARMING, Potential Herbal Medicines and Drug Interactions, List Related Links. hairy, the lateral ones oblique, oblong-ovate, the terminal one equilateral, oblong to oblong-obovate. (9) • Mosquito Repellent Additive: Study showed nami (Discorea hispida) tuber crude extract added to the citronella, neem, and eucalyptus mosquito repellent product is very acceptable based on skin tolerance and overall repellency, while providing a non-irritating alternative to synthetic compounds. Dioscorea hispida / Common names / Zipcodezoo Dioscorea hispida. This Stand Alone Discorine Removal Machine is used to replace and reduce the human work in the production, operating by circulation of water and fully automated. (16) (21) Most of the poisonous higher plants are angiosperms, or flowering plants, but only a small percentage are recognized as poisonous. LD50 was >2000 mg/kbw for the extract. Leaves, The Kurot or Nami (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.) This study evaluated and compared an aqueous leaf extract with 70% v/v methanol leaf extract in BALB/c mice. (12) • Hypoglycemic Effect: Study in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of a water soluble polysaccharide extracted from yam tuber (D. hispida). Its dried tuber has been used as a crude drug in Thai remedy named Thoraneesanthakhat. mollissima (Blume) Prain & Burkill Dioscorea virosa Wall. 2009, 2(04), 547- 560 - Yellow flesh tubers reported to have a better taste than white flesh tubers. Dioscorine content in Dioscorea hispida dried tubers in Thailand by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis / Nonglapat Sasiwatpaisit, Worathat Thitikornpong, Chanida Palanuvej / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014; 6(4): pp 803-806 Wild Yam – a review / Anthony Dweck • Phytochemicals / Phenolic Content: scaphoides Prain & Burkill Dioscorea lunata Roth Dioscorea mollissima Blume Dioscorea triphylla var. - Also used (18) (4) Striated muscle contraction was inhibited by pretreatment with d-turbocurarine. - Roots used as food by the Ayta communities from Porac, Pampanga. Dioscorea hispida Dennst. The sedative effect is comparable to sodium barbiturate, a potent sedative and anaesthetic, with D. hispida having a faster onset of lethargy. Availability picrotoxin. • Insecticidal: Residue after extraction of poison used as insecticidal. - Resistant starch is slowly digested in the lower parts of the GIT, with slow release and absorption of glucose. for Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities / Panduranga Murthy et al / Int. (14) Also, used as an ingredient together with Antiaris toxicaria in the preparation of arrow poisons. Closely related to the Asiatic species Dioscorea hispida[300. J. - In Malaysia, pounded leaves applied to sores of yaw. used in criminal poisoning. Wild yams make a significant contribution to diets of tribal people in Nepal. They are herbaceous plants with twine. Hypoglycemic Activity of Water Soluble Polysaccharides of Yam (Dioscorea hispida Dents) Prepared by Aqueous, Papain, and Tempeh Inoculum Assisted Extractions / Teti Estiasih, Harijono, Weny Bekti Sunarharum, Atina Rahmawati / World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 70 2012 alkaloids and hydrogen cyanide in free and bound forms, high moisture content and a disposition to post harvest deterioration. which is locally known as Ubi Gadong is a wild tuber species which can easily be found in the secondary forests of Asia [21,4]. - Study of mineral content reports the tubers are a good source of phosphorus, calcium and iron. Food Ag-Ind. short, sharp spines. (12) Various plant parts used in whitlow, sores, boils, and bites of rabbit, jackal or dog. Due to being poisonous when fresh, they slice it to thin strips, place a sack full of them in running water for a few days, dehydrated then cooked. Foliage: The simple leaves are heart-shaped and are arranged alternately along the stem. In the harvesting aspect, an innovative hand tool were conceptually designed to replace the traditional hoe or “cangkul”. It has traditionally been used to treat constipation. Bioassay-guided fractionation of hypnotic component from Nami (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.) A highly toxic yam, only used as a famine food after prolonged soaking in water Results showed the crude aqueous leaf extract to possess potent hypnotic activities, supporting its therapeutic effect for insomnia. Dioscorea hispida (D.hispida) is the most well-known starchy tuber in Malaysia and called ‘ubi gadong’. Study showed processing and modification resulted properties comparable to American wheat flour. MALAY: Gadog, Gadong Mabuk, Gadung (Java), Taring Pelanduk, Ubi Akas, Ubi Arak, Ubi gadung. All the WSP extracts exhibited an ability to decrease blood glucose in hyperglycemic condition as well as inhibit glucose absorption and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) formation. Leaves / Suresh A, Panduranga Murthy G, Punith Kumar T G,, Karthika T S, Sanjay Prajapati, Atif Abdelgalil Hasab / International Journal of Xenobiotics and Pharma Technology, 2011; 1(2): pp 41-43 • Poison: Juice of tubers used in criminal poisoning. An ethanolic extract showed significant anticancer activity at varying doses, increasing survival, and decreasing tumor burden. Dioscorea hispida Dennst. & Res., Apr -Jun 2011, 3(20: 203-210. More Accounts and Images; ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (DIHI7) Integrated Taxonomic Information System (DIHI7) Wildlife. Dioscorea hispida / Synonyms / The Plant List It has frequently caused accidental food poisoning TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis yielded a dioscorine content of 0.72 ± 0.07 % w/w and 0.66 ± 0.07 % w/w, respectively. - Despite known toxicity, in Thailand, where it is referred to as Kloi, tubers are used to make a dessert called Kao Nuew Kloi. Dioscorea dumetorum, the bitter yam, is common as a vegetable in parts of West Africa; one reason being that their cultivation requires less labor than other yams. Others Useful Plants of Selected Ayta Communities from Porac, Pampanga, Twenty Years after the Eruption of Mt. - A mature gadung tuber weighs up to 15 kg, each 100 g of tuber (wet basis) yields 20 g of carbohydrates, 78 g water, 1.81 g protein, 0.16 g fat, 0.93 g fiber and 0.69 ash. It has tuberous roots which are toxic. The wild forms are certainly toxic and therefore are sometimes utilized to poison animals whenever combined with bait. • Bleaching: Yellow juice from the flesh and sap of tubers is used for bleaching (18) (20) Botany - In Kerala, India, tuberous herb cooked with salt, chili, tamarind and tumeric powder and used as curry. clothes and abaca fibers. Yams, the edible starchy tubers, are of cultural economic and nutritional importance in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Coursey, 1967). Gadung (Dioscorea hispida) March 10, 2020 Gadung (Dioscorea hispida) is a plant species in Dioscoreaceae, shrubs, trunks and climbing on hard-stemmed plants with convoluted direction always turning to the right from the root, 5-20 m long, producing tubers for … Results showed significant anthelmintic activity comparable to standard Albendazole. Preliminary findings and documented nutritive value suggest the tuber as a potential source of phytochemicals for cosmetic, pharmaceutical or dietary antioxidant use. Constituents The acute oral LD50 value of the material was found to be 549.95 mg/kg body weight with 95% fiducial limits of 412.77 to 672.00 mg/kg. - Used by the Ayta communities of Porac, Pampanga for wounds and clotting. (Agbor-Egbe and Treche, 1995). ): FORMULATION AND A FUTURE NATURAL RODENTICIDE TO CONTROL RAT PEST IN RICE FARMING / Ahdin Gassa / International Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2017; Vol 4, No 3. (4) (10) Caution Synergistic compatibility detoxification may help to reduce toxic effects and improve therapeutic effects. Tendril of yam have been used as deworming medicine. Also used for ulcer treatment. - Interpreting Wetland Status. Of the 13 Dioscorea species available in SBR, 10 species are known to … • Starch-Based Hydrogels / Disinfectants: Novel Dioscorea hispida starch-based hydrogels Known to be poisonous when fresh, caution and careful process will be made to make the root crop edible. Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Dioscorea hispida Dennst. Study evaluated the dioscorine content of D. hispida dried tubers in Thailand. The - Study yielded a saponin glycoside, diosgenin. Dioscorea hispida dennst (D. hispida) is a type of yam in the Dioscoreaceae family that can be abundantly found in the tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Stems covered with few or many (17) I (A-H), PP. • Toxicity Study: Study • 1937 Toxicological (15) see more details by Blighia sápida, where the toxic principle is probably a glucoside and there is no known test for it. and its uses as a supplementary food supply among the Hanunuo Mangyans of Mindoro, Philippines, TROPICAL YAM-TUBER (DIOSCOREA HISPIDA DENNST. Dioscorea hispida(D.hispida)is a poisonous plant which their tuber contains toxic poison and can be consumed after the poison or dioscorine is removed. Read more about the prescription drug WILD YAM (Dioscorea villosa) - ORAL. it showed an acceptable level of toxicity. The Plants Database includes the following 30 species of Dioscorea . Several people use the rootcrop as food. and reaching a length of several meters. • Pharmacologic Effects of Extracts: Purified extracts studied in animals showed: (1) Properties resembling nicotine (2) Injection caused hyperpnea, tachycardia, increase in blood pressure, contraction of nictitating membrane. Stems: The stems are glabrous and have bulbils growing out from the axils. Reduced elevated levels of lipid peroxidation was attributed to a high content of phenolic compounds. Analysis and identification of phenolic compounds in Dioscorea hispida Dennst / Sudawadee Theerasin* and A.T. Baker / As. This plant has no children Legal Status. Leaves are 3-foliolate, the leaflets 12 to 20 centimeters long, somewhat Parts Water Solubility, Swelling and Gelatinization Properties of Raw and Ginger Oil Modified Gadung (Dioscorea hispida Dennst) Flour / Andri Cahyo Kumoro, Diah Susetyo Retnowati, Catarina Sri Budiyati, Thamrin Manurung and Siswanto / Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 4(17): 2854-2860, 2012 Dioscorea hispida sp. Evaluation of antitumour activity and antioxidant status in Discorea hispida Dennst. / Ana Joy P. Padua / Thesis/Dissertation 2014: University of the Philippines / Herdin Record #: PCHRD14061816344943  2nd ed. Rats that fed on baits showed slow motion movement, quiet stay, shaking, paralysis before death and the higher the dose the more significant the effects. Additional Gadung (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.) Drug Dev. It has been reportedly of ethanolic extract showed no toxicity or death at given test dose levels. - In India used as famine food. leaves on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice / Punith Kumar, Pandurang Murthy, G Suresh et al / Int. (7) Study of extract of D. hispida in animal models showed potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and therapeutic efficacy, comparable to standard drugs Pentazocine and indomethacin respectively. - Tuber crop is an important source of carbohydrates; has been used a staple foods during WWI. • Gadung Starch / Modification with Raw and Ginger Oil: Use of starch is limited by its high content of toxic substances, i.e. Title Vegetables in the Tropics Publication Author Tindall. Flesh and sap of the tubers are yellowish. Sahilah A Mutalib, Siti Fairus M Yusoff, Shazrul Fazry, Akram Noordin, Malina Kumaran, Azwan Mat Lazim / Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers: Biomedical Applications, January 2016 Vol 31 No 1 / doi: 10.1177/0883911515597704 Traditionally the tubers were placed in flowing river water for several days. GERMAN: Bittere yamswurzel, Giftige yams. J. Analysis and identification of phenolic compounds in Dioscorea hispida Dennst / Sudawadee Theerasin and A T Baker / As. Apart from that, starch from gadong tuber (Dioscorea hispida sp.) This … Edibility / Nutrition DIOSCOREA HISPIDA Dennstedt / Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh - Juice of underground stems reported to possess narcotic properties. known as a yam (Internationally) is used as an alternative food and a medicinal material at some places in Indonesia. Panicle is axillary, slender, hairy, 12 to 20 centimeters long. flowers similar to males, 3-winged, 3-celled, ovules 2 in each cell. Sources and Suggested Readings (17) (4) Yams (Dioscorea) belong to Dioscoreaceae family. Production of D. hispida is normally scattered over a large area so that the large-scale commercial production of starch from this yam is not likely to be economically viable. Toxicity and bitterness in Australian Dioscorea bulbifera L. and Dioscorea hispida Dennst. Peel yielded caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and methylester of protocatechuic acid. 2009, 2(04), 547- 560 arthritic and rheumatic pains. Dioscorea species, popularly known as Yam worldwide and as Ban Aalu in Odisha, India, is a prime staple medicinal-food substitute for the majority of rural and local people of the state of India. - Extracts of tubers yielded hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, and their derivatives. Res, Vol 1, No 2, Apr-June 2011 and forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. - Neurotoxicity manifestations range from dizziness, altered consciousness, muscle paralysis and seizures. Wetland Status. Pinatubo / Elena M. Ragragio*, Cynthia Neri Zayas** and Jasper John A. Obico* / Philippine Journal of Science, 142: 169-181, Special Issue (19) (16) Flowers are small; unisexual male flowers with 6 stamens; female • Potential as Rodenticide: Study evaluated a formulation of yam-tuber as rodenticide for rat pest control using three treatment doses i.e., 300 g, 600 g, and 900 g of yam tuber. Pulau Redang has several detoxification techniques. Studies of Philippine Medicinal Plants with Chinese Names. Dioscorea hispida crude extract was found to cause severe poisoning symptoms. • Dioscorine / Neurotoxic / Dried Tubers: Dioscorea hispida contains the neurotoxic dioscorine, an isoquinuclidine alkaloid that causes nervous system paralysis. (14) study aimed to determine the dioscorine toxic compound present in Dioscorea hispida tubers after 5 days of soaking through an LC-MS analysis. The tubers were peeled, sliced and soaked in flowing water (river) up to 7 days during traditionally detoxified process. - Occurs in India to China and Taiwan and through Malaya to New Guinea. (Dioscoreaceae) is a valuable source of edible starch. - Tubers contain the poisonous alkaloid dioscorine, resembling - - Tuber, raw or cooked used as anodyne and maturative for tumors and buboes. - Studies suggest anthelmintic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-tumor activities. Dioscorine is an alkaloid toxin isolated from the tubers of tropical yam on several continents. - In Thailand, used to treat constipation. (8) Toxin removal Despite concerns over toxicity effects, the tuber is known to possess therapeutic values due to the presence of bioactive compounds such as saponins. The anomaly was attributed to the sample preparation, hydrolysis time and/or pH. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. In the case of dioscorine, the toxic principle of Dioscorea hispida dioscorea hispida Subject Category: Organism Names see more details, the authors have in this paper recorded their work to elucidate its detection. The possible reasons for its toxicity include the toxic effects of diosbulbin B and D on hepatocytes, the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes in liver mitochondria, and inhibition of enzymes that ordinarily metabolize the herb’s components. Dioscorea hispida, also known as the Indian three-leaved yam,[1] is a species of yam in the genus Dioscorea, native to South and Southeast Asia. Etymology: The genus name is derived from 'Dioscorides', a 1st century Greek physician and herbalist who was the author of 'Materia Medica'. The tuber's crude extracts were administered to the animals through stomach intubation using a ball point needle fitted to a syringe. Fruit is a capsule, oblong and about 5 centimeters long. (19) The Kurot or Nami (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.) One requires thin slicing of yam, the soaking it in salted water for three days, then placing it in a sac to re-soak in a river or flowing water for another three days, finally testing edibility to see if fish would feed on them. Anti-infectious, antiphlogistic, leaf extract using balb/C mice. Study: This 1937 study reports on the toxicological evaluation of Dioscorea hispida. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. This is to determine whether the plant material exerts potential as a rodent control agent. Pinatubo. Bioassay-guided fractionation of hypnotic component from Nami (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.) (1)

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